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This article is the reference material for consulting the terminology used throughout Hathor documentation.


  • Asset is anything that can be used to produce (positive) economic value.

    Source: Herold and Crowder, 2014, p. 17 1.


  • Blockchain is a decentralized information system that implements a virtually immutable electronic ledger, and that may or may not be capable of executing programs stored in the ledger.

    For more, see Blockchain at encyclopedia.

  • Blockchain explorer is an application for visualizing blocks, transactions, and blockchain network metrics — e.g., average transaction fees, hashrates, block size, block difficulty.

    Source: NISTIR 8301, 2021, p. 71 2.

  • Blockchain network is a distributed and decentralized computer system that implements a blockchain technology.

    Source: ISO 22739:2020 3.

  • Blockchain system is a system composed of a blockchain network along with all its ancillary services, applications (wallets and explorers), and side chains.

    Source: ISO 22739:2020 3.

  • Blockchain transaction is the unit of information registered in a blockchain.

    Source: ISO 22739:2020 3.

  • A blueprint is the source code that models a general category of nano contracts use cases and serves as a template for creating nano contracts.

  • Bookkeeping model is an attribute of blockchain technologies that denotes how it records the state of the system and the transitioning from one state to another. The two most common bookkeeping models for blockchains are:

    • UTXO model; and
    • account-based model.

    For more, see Bookkeeping model at encyclopedia.

  • Browser extension wallet is a wallet application implemented as a browser extension.


  • Crypto asset is a digital representation of value recorded on a DLT — i.e., a digital asset recorded on a DLT.

    Source: ISO 22739:2020 3.

  • Crypto exchange is an exchange to trade crypto assets.


  • Desktop wallet is a wallet application for desktop devices.

  • Digital asset is any asset that inherently exists only in digital form or is the digital representation of another asset.

    Sources: ISO 22739:2020 3; NISTIR 8202, 2018, p. 51 4.

  • Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is a synonym of blockchain technology.

    For more, see DLT at encyclopedia.


  • To exchange is the act of giving one thing and receiving another in return. For example, the event where Alice transfer an amount of assets to Bob, and Bob transfer an amount of another asset to Alice in return.

    Source: FED, Glossary 5.

  • Exchange (noun) is a marketplace for financial assets.

    Source: Nasdaq, Glossary 6.

  • External system (or third-party system) is any system intended to be integrated (or interoperate) with Hathor system.


  • Full node is a type of node that does most or all the necessary activities to maintain the operation of the blockchain network, namely: (i) validating transactions and blocks; (ii) participating in the consensus to define the valid state of the blockchain; (iii) propagating transactions and blocks; (iv) storing a full copy of the blockchain; and (v) executing smart contracts (if the technology has this capability).

    Source: Alzhrani et al., 2022, p. 110579 7.

  • Funds is a sum of assets that is allocated in some place, and available to be managed by its owner.


  • Hardware wallet is a device that can be used alongside a wallet application to compose a wallet system, in order to enhance the security of its wallets. When used, it assumes all functions related to securely store private keys and the signing of transactions.

    Source: Lipton and Treccani, 2021, p. 264 8.

  • Hathor is a scalable, secure, and easy-to-use blockchain.

  • Hathor core is the official and reference client for operating a full node in Hathor Network.

  • Hathor blockchain is the ledger of Hathor network.

  • Hathor browser wallet is the official browser wallet plugin of Hathor.

  • Hathor desktop wallet is the official desktop wallet of Hathor.

  • Hathor docs is the official technical documentation of Hathor.

  • Hathor explorer is the official blockchain explorer of Hathor.

  • Hathor full node is the computer system unit that is a peer in Hathor Network. Hathor full node is the primary building block that comprises Hathor Network.

  • Hathor headless wallet is the official headless wallet of Hathor, intended to integrate external systems with Hathor Network.

  • Hathor Labs is the organization that supports and coordinates the development of Hathor technology. It neither owns nor controls Hathor Network, and is simply one of multiple parties engaged in the collective effort of Hathor community — in other words, it is a member of the community.

  • Hathor mobile wallet is the official mobile wallet of Hathor.

  • Hathor Network is the official public blockchain network that implements Hathor.

  • Hathor system comprises Hathor Network, along with all its ancillary services, applications (wallets and explorers), and side DAGs.

  • Hathor side DAGs are private and permissioned instances of Hathor blockchain, that integrate with Hathor public blockchain to create hybrid blockchains.

  • Hathor wallet library is the official and reference library to implement wallets for Hathor.

  • Headless wallet is a wallet application whose interface is an API.


  • Integrated system is any system already integrated with Hathor system.


  • Ledger is a type of database that is append-only, used to register transactions or events. An electronic ledger is a ledger implemented in a computer system.

    Source: ITU-T FG DLT D1.1, 2019, p. 3 9.

  • Light client is a type of node that does not participate in the activities necessary to maintain the network operational but interacts only to consume its services — namely, to transact over the network.

    Sources: Tran et al., 2022, p. 267 10; Alzhrani et al., 2022, p. 110579 7.


  • Miner is a polysemic term that can mean either:

    • a subtype of full node in proof-of-work blockchains that, in addition to performing its standard activities, also creates blocks (mining nodes);
    • the software used by full nodes to perform the blockchain mining activity (mining software); or
    • the company engaged in blockchain mining activity (mining companies).

    Sources: NISTIR 8202, 2018, p. 53 4; Tran et al., 2022, p. 17 10.

  • Marketplace is a meeting and negotiating place for buyers and sellers.

    Source: FED, Glossary 5.

  • Mobile wallet is a wallet application for mobile devices.


  • Nano contract is a type of smart contract exclusive to Hathor technology. Every smart contract deployed on Hathor blockchain is referred to as a nano contract. The distinguishing factor of a nano contract compared to a conventional smart contract is that Hathor platform provides contract templates, making it possible to create contracts on Hathor blockchain without needing to develop their code.

  • Native token is a type of token that comprises an integral part of the blockchain protocol it was issued on.

    Sources: NISTIR 8301, 2021, p. 1 2; Alzhrani et al., 2022, p. 110577 7; IMF, 2023, p. 5 11.

  • Negotiation is a discussion aimed at achieving an agreement about the terms of a trade.

  • NFT is the acronym of non-fungible token. A non-fungible token is a token that is not fungible.

    Source: ITU-T FG DLT D1.1, 2019, p. 4 9.

  • Node is a computer unit that constitutes and participates in a blockchain network, functioning as a peer within the network.

    Sources: NISTIR 8202, 2018, p. 54 4; ITU-T FG DLT D1.1, 2019, p. 4 9; ISO 22739:2020 3.


  • Oracle is a special type of smart contract user that provides off-chain data that a contract may need to work. A smart contract may require none, one, or multiple oracles to address different off-chain data needs. For example, in a sports bet contract, an oracle is required to inform the result of a match.

  • Over-the-counter (OTC) is a polyssemic term that can mean either:

    • a decentralized market as opposed to exchanges; or
    • a trade made without the supervision of any exchange.

    Sources: Nasdaq, Glossary 6; Briscoe and Fuller, 2007. p. 1243 [^19].


  • Paper wallet is a piece of paper that stores a private key or a seed phrase (of a brain wallet) printed on it and is typically used as a backup for wallet recovery.

    Source: Alzhrani et al., 2022, p. 110579 7.

  • Participant is a person or entity participating in a blockchain transaction.

  • Person is a user that interacts with a blockchain system via a graphical user interface (GUI) or a command-line interface (CLI).

    Source: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, p. 495 12.


  • Recipient is a participant of a transfer to which assets are transferred.

  • Remitter is a participant of a transfer from which assets are transferred.


  • Smart contract is a software that is stored on, executed by, and has its outputs recorded on a blockchain network.

    For more, see Smart contract at encyclopedia.

  • Snapshot is a file that reflects the state of the ledger at a particular moment in time, and can be used to recreate this state.

    For more, see Snapshot at encyclopedia.

  • System is any entity that interacts with a given (blockchain) system via an application programming interface (API).

    Source: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, p. 453 12.


  • Token is a digital asset that represents a collection of entitlements.

    For more, see Token at encyclopedia.

  • Trade is an exchange of predefined and agreed amounts of multiple assets among multiple parties.

    For more, see Trade at encyclopedia.

  • Transfer is a process by which ownership of assets is reassigned to a new owner.

    Source: Nasdaq, Glossary 6.


  • User is any individual or organization that interacts with a blockchain system or benefits from its utilization.

    Source: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, p. 495 12.


  • Wallet is an abstract entity in blockchain technology that enables users to transact — i.e., to read, write, and manage their blockchain transactions. In practical terms, a wallet acts as a decentralized account on the ledger.

    Sources: Lipton and Treccani, 2021, p. 264 8; ITU-T FG DLT D1.1, 2019, p. 6 9.

  • Wallet application is an application that implements wallets for one or multiple blockchains.

    Source: Lipton and Treccani, 2021, p. 264 8.

  • Wallet library is a library that is used to implement wallets for a specific blockchain.

  • Wallet system comprises the software and hardware that implements a wallet for one or multiple blockchains. From a user's perspective, a wallet is analogous to a bank account, and wallet systems are analogous to banking applications, cashiers, and ATMs.

    For more, see Wallet system at encyclopedia.


  1. T. Herold and W. Crowder, Financial Terms Dictionary — Terminology Plain and Simple Explained. Createspace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014.

  2. NIST, NISTIR 8301 — Blockchain Networks: Token Design and Management Overview. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2021. [Online]. Available: 2

  3. ISO, 22739:2020 — Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies — Vocabulary. 2 3 4 5 6

  4. NIST, NISTIR 8202 — Blockchain Technology Overview. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: ational Institute of Standards and Technology, 2018. [Online]. Available: 2 3

  5. FED (Federal Reserve Bank), Glossary, 2024. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: May 04, 2024]. 2

  6. Nasdaq, Glossary, 2024. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: May 04, 2024]. 2 3

  7. F. E. Alzhrani, K. A. Saeedi, and L. Zhao, A Taxonomy for Characterizing Blockchain Systems, IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 110568–110589, 2022, doi: 10.1109/access.2022.3214837. 2 3 4

  8. A. Lipton and A. Treccani, Blockchain and Distributed Ledgers Mathematics, Technology, and Economics. World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd, 2021. 2 3

  9. ITU-T, Technical specification FG DLT D1.1: Distributed ledger technology terms and definitions. International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T), 2019. [Online]. Available: 2 3 4

  10. D. A. Tran, M. T. Thai, and B. Krishnamachari, Handbook on Blockchain. Springer International Publishing AG, 2022. 2

  11. IMF, Digital Tokens: a Legal Perspective, International Monetary Fund, 2023.

  12. ISO/IEC/IEEE, 24765 – Systems and software engineering – Vocabulary. IEEE, 2017. doi: 10.1109/ieeestd.2017.8016712. 2 3